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4 Yugas – The Ages of Man



Modern western society has been built on the premise that time is always linear, humans evolved from apes, hunters became farmers, civilization developed from agriculture, and that we are now at the pinnacle of industrial, technological and human achievement. This is the atheistic ‘rationalist’ view of history which has been popularised over the last three hundred years or so. This modern paradigm is well represented by the satirical animation below.

However, many of the worlds ancient cultures as well as some present day religions describe a very different picture. First, there is always a Creator, and creation of man and civilization. There is always a purpose, a morality, and a goal for humanity – God’s plan.

The most ancient wisdom ever written, the Indian Vedas and Purāṇas, describe a cyclical nature to human development, an eternal cycle of creation and destruction – yet it is a cycle from order to chaos – of virtue to irreligion throughout the ages of man. This is called the Catur-Yuga or Maha-Yuga, an endless cycle of four ages or aeons, called Yugas. As virtue gradually disappears, material technology becomes more advanced. Even so, as a result of wars and the fall of civilizations, material science achieved by the ancients is often lost to mankind, for example, the precise shaping of megaliths in Egypt and Peru, and the weaponised airships mentioned in Ancient India. Although the sciences including chemistry, architecture and aerodynamics are taught in Tretā-yuga, they were always used ecologically and spiritually. In Kali-yuga, however, scientific advancement is characterised by greed, vanity, warfare, pollution, dogma, deception, atheism, extinction of species and destruction of the environment.

It may be a surprise to learn that the ancient Vedic Aryans, Sumerians, Persians, Buddhists, Ancient Greeks, Jews, Muslims, Christianity and Mesoamerican Aztecs have all written about the four ages of man, otherwise named The Golden Age, The Silver Age, The Bronze Age and The Iron Age. The Vedic, Buddhist, Greek and Aztec versions are cyclic in nature, while the Persian, Hebrew, Christian and Islamic versions are linear – with the creation of paradise, the fall of mankind, and the final renovation of the world.

In the Bible, the beginning of Tretāyuga is symbolised by the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Paradise of Eden

We will begin with the Vedic descriptions of the four ages, particularly from the Bhāgavata Purāṇa and Vāyu Purāṇa, because these descriptions are very detailed and are corroborated by other Vedic literature. The Aeons are called Krita [Satya] Yuga, Tretā Yuga, Dvāpara Yuga and Kali Yuga. After this we shall compare these descriptions with those given by other cultures around the world, both cyclic and linear. First, a brief outline of the four yugas, then a detailed description of each in turn.

Before describing the traditional Puranic understanding of the four yugas, it should be noted that a much shorter “Yuga System” was invented by Sri Yukteswar (1855 – 1936) that reduced the decline cycle to only 12,000 human years, and added to it, a reverse 12,000 year cycle of increasing morality. This theory was subsequently perpetuated by others, including his disciple Paramahansa Yogananda and the Theosophical Society, with the agenda of verifying Puranic knowledge with the modern scientific observation of the “precession of the equinoxes” through the zodiac, which averages 24,000 years. However, this short-yuga theory is not supported by any traditional Vedic or Puranic literature.


The Bhāgavata Purāṇa describes an endless cycle of four great ages, from Satya-yuga to Kali-yuga, during which the principles of religion, dharma and virtue gradually deteriorate. In the Krita Age dharma and virtue is natural, in Tretā it is sought and attained, in Dvāpara it becomes intensely affected and agitated, and in Kali it perishes.

In Satya-yuga, the religious principles are observed in full, without deviation. Truthfulness, austerity, mercy, cleanliness, wisdom, and religiosity predominate. Vice and ignorance are practically non-existent. In Tretā-yuga, however, vice appears, the mode of passion becomes predominant and only three quarters of religious principals remain. People are devoted to their duties but have ulterior motives and seek personal prestige. In Dvāpara-yuga only half of the religious principles remain, religiosity and all other good qualities decline and vice gains momentum. Greed, dissatisfaction, false pride, selfishness and envy become prominent. In Kali-yuga only one fourth of religious principles remain, which continue to disappear. Hypocrisy and vice flourish, cheaters pose as leaders, people are quarrelsome, lazy, misguided, unlucky, and are always disturbed with violence, depression, bewilderment, fear and poverty. At the end of Kali-yuga, the principles of religion, or the occupational duties of humanity, are almost completely lost.

Watch the 4 minute animation below about the Tale of Four Ages.

The ancient Vedic ‘Laws of Manu’ called Manu-smriti describes the four yugas like this:

Satya (Krita) Yuga  –  This first age is 1,728,000 human years. Also known as the Golden Age or age of Truth. The qualities of this age are: virtue reigns supreme; human stature is 21 cubits; lifespan is 100,000 of years, and death occurs only when willed. Liberation is attained in this age through the system of meditation on Vishnu.

Tretā Yuga  –  This second age is 1,296,000 human years. Also known as the Silver Age. The qualities of this age are: there is three quarters virtue and one quarter sin; human stature is 14 cubits; lifespan is 10,000 years. Liberation is attained in this age through the system of Vedic Fire Sacrifice.

Dvāpara Yuga  –  This third age is 864,000 human years. Also known as the Bronze Age. The qualities of this age are: there is one half virtue and one half sin; human stature is 7 cubits lifespan is 1,000 years. Liberation is attained in this age through the system of Deity worship and construction of opulent Temples.

Kali Yuga  –  The fourth and last age is 432,000 human years. Also known as the Iron Age or the Dark Age, this is the age in which we are presently living. At the start of this age there is one quarter virtue and three quarters sin; human stature is 3.5 cubits; lifespan is 100 years and will reduce to 25 years. Liberation is attained in this age through the congregational chanting of Vishnu’s holy names.

A mahayuga or chaturyuga is the cycle of four yugas, and lasts for 12,000 Divine Years. The 4 yugas endure at the ratio 4:3:2:1 and add up to 10,000 Divine years, plus another 2,000 Divine Years are added for intervening dawn and dusk periods between yugas (called sandhyā and sandhyāṅsa). Hence, there is a total of 12,000 Divine Years (4,320,000 human years) in a Mahayuga.

The Yugas and their junctions (Sandhyā):

  Krita (Satya)   Yuga 4000 Divine Years Earth Years
    Sandhyā 400    
    Sandhyāṅsa 400    
      4800 1,728,000
  Tretā   Yuga 3000    
    Sandhyā 300    
    Sandhyāṅsa 300    
      3600 1,296,000
  Dvāpara   Yuga 2000    
    Sandhyā 200    
    Sandhyāṅsa 200    
      2400 864,000
  Kali   Yuga 1000    
    Sandhyā 100    
    Sandhyāṅsa 100    
      1200 432,000
  TOTAL     12000 4,320,000

The durations of the four yugas described in the Puranic literature indicate  (a) they form an arithmetic progression; (b) they sum to a multiple of ten; (c) their arithmetic sum is 4.32 million years (since 1 Divine Year = 360 Earth Years).

Furthermore, the model also enumerates the following conversion factors for dealing with longer time spans. There are roughly seventy-one Mahayugas in one Manvantara.

  1. 1,000 Manvantara cycles is equivalent to one Brahmā day called a Kalpa (approx. 4.32 billion years);
  2. One Brahmā night is equivalent to another 1,000 Manvantara cycles;
  3. One Brahmā day and one Brahmā night is equivalent to two Kalpas (approx. 8.64 billion years)

Surprisingly enough, the value of one Brahmā day (or night) is roughly equivalent to the present estimate of the age of the Earth (4.54 billion years), and that the value of one day & night of Brahmā is similar to the present estimate for the age of the solar system (10 billion years).

The ancient Purāṇas describe a cycle of moral degradation as the world moves from the beginning of the Krta yuga (morality = 1) to a progressively more morally degenerate periods until the end of the Kali yuga (morality = 0). The rate of moral degeneration is explicitly described in the Vāyu Purāṇa (Ch 59 v115) wherein the characteristics of one yuga are maintained during the transition (Sandhya) to the next. Therefore, for computational purposes, we may assume that the inter-yuga morality difference is constant (model II – red line), rather than degenerating linearly with respect to time (mode I – blue line) throughout the Mahayuga cycle.

image credits: Wee Lee, University of Malaya 2011

The present Kali-yuga began with the disappearance of Sri Krishna in 3,102 BCE, 36 years after the end of the Mahabharata War (traditionally dated to 3,138 BCE). Thus, we are currently still near the very beginning of the Dark Age of Confusion & Quarrel according to the Puranic time scale, as only 1% or 5,124 years have passed (as of 2022).

Have there been continuous cover-ups by conservative archeologists about giant human remains from previous yugas? Bones are destroyed, but photos and copies of newspaper articles remain.


SATYA YUGA  (3,893,121 years ago)


The Surya-siddhanta attributes astronomical movements to the cycle of yugas. The Satya yuga is said to begin when the sun, moon and Jupiter jointly enter the Pushya Nakshatra (ie, the Zodiac of Cancer). Some academics mistakenly attribute the origin of yuga cycles to be the astronomical procession of the equinox, or a cycle of 25,860 years. While this might be the case for the Mesoamerican ‘Maya Long Count Calendar’ this cycle is much shorter than the ages described in the Purāṇas.

Food, shelter & all needs were provided by wishing-trees (kalpavriksha trees) in Satya yuga

Descriptions of the characteristics of each yuga or age are found in many Purāṇas, such as the Bhavishya Purāṇa (Brahmā Parva, 2.113-119). For example, Srimad-Bhāgavatam (starting at 12.3.18) states that in Satya-yuga there is virtue, wisdom, and religion, with no ignorance or vice. People are full of truthfulness, mercy, austerity, and charity. These are the four legs of religion and the universal aspects of pious life as found in any true spiritual process. The people of Satya-yuga are also self-satisfied, friendly, peaceful, sober, and tolerant. Their pleasure is found within themselves, not through gratifying their senses in external activities. They know their spiritual identity and live in harmony with God, nature, and each other. They see things equally and continually work to attain spiritual perfection. People in Satya-yuga, living in this mode of goodness, could live to be up to 100,000 years old, and were said to stand 21 cubits high.

The Nārada Purāṇa (Canto 1, Chapter 41, Verses 7-11) elaborates on the conditions of Satya or Krita-yuga. In Krita-yuga there were no separate [species of demigods and demonic beings on earth, such as] Devas, Danavas, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Rakshasas, or serpents. All were as good as Devas or demigods. All were always full of delight and righteousness. There was neither buying or selling. There were no different classifications of the Vedas. All classes of people were interested in their respective duties and conduct of life. There was only one deity, Lord Nārāyaṇa, and the people were always engrossed in penance and meditation and devotion to Nārāyaṇa. They were free from lust and other defects and were endowed with qualities such as self-control. Their minds were engaged in seeking the means of Dharma [spiritual merit], and they were without envy, jealousy, arrogance, or hypocrisy.  All were truthful and richly endowed with Vedic knowledge. They practiced the proper holy rites for their stage of life.

People of Satya-yuga were always walking with God (Vasudeva / Yahutoba) were truthful, kind, and lived long lives free from grief and disease

The Kurma Purāṇa (1.29.14-17) goes on to say that in Satya-yuga the birth of people was through spiritually sanctioned methods, so everyone was born with a highly developed consciousness, which spread throughout society. All livelihoods were without greed. The citizens were always content and had all pleasures and enjoyments. They were without distinctions and, therefore, without inferiority or superiority. They had equal longevity and beauty, were free from grief, and practiced adherence to truth, meditation, and penance. They were always delighted in their minds.

The Padma Purāṇa (7.26.2-5) also states that people in Satya-yuga were all devoted to the worship of one deity, Vishnu (Nārāyaṇa), and were free from grief and disease. All were truthful, kind, and lived long. They were all rich in wealth and grains. They did no harm to other beings and were free from religious hypocrisy. No one practiced unrighteousness.

The Mahabharata (Shanti Parva, 232.32) relates how in the Krita age (Satya-yuga) the performance of sacrifices or rituals were not required. Such performance becomes necessary only in the Tretā age. In Dvāpara-yuga, ritual worship begins to fall away, as it does even more so in the Kali age. It also describes that men of that yuga never acquired knowledge or objects through unrighteousness or forbidden means. All persons were free of disease and achieved whatever they needed. However, in the Tretā age, Dharma, as established by the Vedas, the length of life, and the fruits of Vedic rites all gradually decrease by a quarter. (Mahabharata, Shanti Parva, 231.23-25)

In the conversation between Uddhava and Lord Krishna found in the Eleventh Canto of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa (11.17.10-11), Krishna explains: “In the beginning, in Satya-yuga, there is only one social class, called hamsa [swan-like] to which all human beings belong. In that age all people are unalloyed devotees of the Lord from birth, and thus learned scholars call this first age Krita-yuga, or the age in which all religious duties are perfectly fulfilled. In this yuga, the undivided Veda is expressed by the syllable Om, and I am the only object of mental activities [thought and meditation]. I become manifest as the four-legged bull of religion, and thus the inhabitants of Satya-yuga, fixed in austerity and free from all sins, worship Me as Lord Hamsa.”

The yuga-dharma, or religion of the age, was meditation on God

In Satya-yuga, because everyone understood the essence of the Vedic and Dharmic instruction for spiritual advancement, there was no need for further explanations by dividing the Vedic knowledge into additional branches. Nor was there any need for rituals or austerities to train the mind and senses for engaging in spiritual life. That is the significance of the bull of religion, which stands on all four legs of truth, austerity, mercy, and cleanliness. With each yuga that passes, he loses one leg indicating the loss of one of those good qualities. The inhabitants of Satya-yuga were described as peaceful, free from envy, the well-wishers of every living entity, and fixed on the spiritual platform beyond the modes of material nature.

Vāyu Purāṇa:  “In satya yuga, winter, summer and monsoon were unknown. All individuals were equally handsome, equally prosperous and equally happy. There was no concept of dharma (righteousness) or adharma (evil) since people were naturally righteous. There were no prescribed places where people lived, there were no cities or villages. People lived freely on the shores of the oceans and in the mountains. Roots, fruits or flowers did not grow. People lived on juice that came out of the bowels of the earth. This juice was so miraculous that old age and disease were unknown. Hatred and envy did not exit. There was nothing to be envious about, since all individuals were equal. Moreover, people had the mental power to summon up whatever object they desired. There were no shortages. Demons took birth in other realms during Satya Yuga.

Because springs were flowing with the ‘nectar of immortality’ old age and disease were unknown in this age

Mahabharata:  “In the Krita age, O king, men are born and beget children, by hundreds and thousands, that are of great strength and great power, endued with the attribute of great wisdom, and possessed of wealth and handsome features. In that age are born and begotten Munis endued with wealth of asceticism, capable of great exertion, possessed of high souls, and virtuous, and truthful in speech.” The seven great rishis travel and repopulate the world to re-establish the yuga-dharma of meditation.

Bhagavat Purāṇa – 11.5.23: “In Satya-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Haṁsa, Suparṇa, Vaikuṇṭha, Dharma, Yogeśvara, Amala, Īśvara, Puruṣa, Avyakta and Paramātmā.” In this yuga Lord Vishnu incarnates in a white colour, and wears tree bark and a black deerskin as an ideal meditative Brahmācārī yogi, like Lord Kapila-Deva or Lord Nara-Nārāyaṇa. Those who are self-realized in this age know this Supreme Being, Lord Vāsudeva as Paramātmā. Absorbed in meditation, the sages of Satya-yuga perceive Him in various four-armed transcendental forms within their hearts and worship Him.

The Lord appeared as Narayana Rishi near the Himalayas in the Krita Age

The Earth is covered with beautiful gardens, and provides comfortable resting places. Brahmins, sages and ascetics, according to their nature, are be absorbed in penance, and their ashrams are devoid of all wickedness.

The eternal religion of worshipping Nārāyaṇa is completely establishment in Satya yuga.   All the gods, demons, Gandharvas, Yaksha give up their hatred and differences. The Rig, Sama and Yajurveda are not separate and demarcated. This era was devoid of agricultural activities or rather any other type of activity. Just by mere contemplation one would beget desired results. The only religion that was relevant was the renunciation of vested interests and meditation on Vishnu. People in this era would never fall ill. No one would try to point out faults or demerits in anyone’s personality. The personality was not plagued by demerits like ego, sorrow, aggression, jealousy, hatred, backbiting, fear, anger and lethargy.

Houses or cities were not needed in Satya-yuga. One could wish for a flying mansion and it would instantly appear

People would practice austerities and penance to attain God. The primary obsession of individuals in satya yuga was meditation (dhyana), all would be inclined towards supreme knowledge and all actions performed would be in the intention of attaining celestial bliss. Having attained mystic powers as a birth right, individuals could travel to the heavenly realms of Jambudvipa, or could mentally create celestial pleasure airships to visit the Devas.

In this way all these divine people would be bestowed with sublime faith, piousness and would effortlessly attain union with God, which is a salient feature of Satya yuga. Very valiant, mighty, intelligent and people gifted with all good qualities would take birth in this era. They would give birth to thousands of children of pure qualities to populate the Earth. Great sages embellished with divinity would take birth in this era.

Perfection through meditation could take thousands of years. The yogi would then choose an auspicious astrological moment for his ascension

It is said that in Satya-yuga, for rishis, human life could exist as long as there was marrow in the bones. In Tretā, as long as there was a body, in Dvāpara-yuga, as long as there is breath, and in Kali yuga as long as there is anna (food).

The last part of this video contains more covered up evidence of giant skeletons being discovered:

TRETĀ YUGA  (2,165,121 years ago)


The kalpavriksa wishing-trees began to wither away in Tretā yuga

Vāyu Purāṇa: As one moved from satya yuga to Tretā yuga, mental powers that people possessed disappeared. Desire for knowledge (jnana) replaced meditation. Thick clouds appeared in the sky and it began to rain. This rain fostered the growth of various trees. People started to live on the fruits of these trees. The trees also provided barks for clothing and honey. As Tretā yuga progressed, people became evil and started to fight over the possession of the wonderful kalpavriksha trees that provided whatever one desired. Consequently, the wishing-trees began to wither away.

It was then that habitations started to be built, earlier there had been no fixed dwelling places for humans. Such habitations were built on mountains and near rivers. Villages and cities were constructed. It also became necessary to have units of measurement. The houses that men built were known as shalas. This is because they were modelled on trees. The branches of a tree (shakha) spread out in all directions. Since the houses spread out in this fashion, they were called shalas. The palaces were called prasada, the word signifying that these dwellings pleased the mind.

The kalpavrikshas having disappeared, people had to look for means of sustenance. This they found in trees and herbs. In fact, the discovery of herbs goes back to Tretā yuga. As people became more infected with evil, those who were more pious and those who were less pious started taking birth in different kingdoms. They fought over the possessions of rivers, land , mountains, trees and herbs.

Might became right and those who were strong managed to establish property rights. The weak suffered. The result of all this fighting was that the trees and the herbs disappeared and foodgrains grew no longer. The entire earth was swallowed up by thick forests. Suffering from hunger and thirst, people went to Brahmā in search of a solution. Brahmā milked the earth, just as King Prithu had done so in a previous Tretā-yuga,  so that trees, herbs and foodgrains might grow afresh. In this age oceans, deserts, agriculture and cities were formed.

Different sages took birth to expand and teach all the arts, crafts, sciences and laws necessary for peaceful civilization, such as Sanskrit poetry, astronomy, music and architecture. The holy places from previous yugas were re-established and wonderful temples were re-built. The holy places of pilgrimage are eternal, but they appear and disappear according to the cycle of yugas. In this way the legends of Rama, Shiva and the Dasavatars are preserved in various locations, and by the Vedas, the Rishis and bards of the great kings.  During the Tretā-yuga of Lord Rama, large ocean going ships were built, and pilgrims taught the art of sacrifice in far off lands.

Ocean going ships were built, and pilgrims taught the art of sacrifice in far off lands

To make sure that people did not fight again, Brahmā laid down the precepts of righteous conduct. This was encapsulated in the principle of varnashrama dharma – the system of four varnas (classes) and four ashramas (stages of life). The principle of varnashrama dharma thus dates back to Tretā yuga and was enunciated by Brahmā himself.

In the Mahabharata, it is said that the Kshatriyas, born in the Tretā age, were emperors ruling from sea to sea. In Tretā are begotten brave Kshatriyas not subject to any one, endued with long lives, are of agreeable features, able-bodied, possessed of great energy, accomplished in the use of the bow, highly skilled in battle and exceedingly brave. Sometimes battles took place in the sky, using various styles of aircraft (called vimanas) equipped with weapons similar in power to the nuclear missiles of today.

King Ramachandra returns to Ayodhya in a beautiful flying vimana

Continuing with the descriptions in the Bhāgavatam (from 12.3.20), it states that in the next age of Tretā-yuga there is a 25 percent reduction in religion, and that is when vice appears. The influence of irreligion is felt through the introduction of lying, violence, dissatisfaction, and quarrel. This increases as people begin to lose touch with their spiritual identity. In Tretā-yuga people are devoted to the performance of rituals and severe austerities for both spiritual and economic gain. They attain prosperity by following the instructions of the three Vedas. People are not so violent or lusty for sensual pleasure. However, this is the age when they perceive the divisions of social classes, namely as Brahmānas (spiritual scholars and priests), Kshatriyas (administrators and warriors), Vaishyas (merchants, bankers, and farmers), and Shudras (laborers, artists, performers, etc.). People of Tretā-yuga could live up to 10,000 years, and had a stature of 14 cubits.

Sometimes architects from heaven came and built wonderful cities made of gold and precious gems

In the continuation of the conversation between Uddhava and Lord Krishna, Lord Krishna explains: “O greatly fortunate one, at the beginning of Tretā-yuga Vedic knowledge appeared from My heart, which is the abode of the air of life, in three divisions–as Rig, Sama, and Yajur Vedas. Then from that knowledge I appeared as threefold sacrifice.” (Srimad-Bhāgavatam 11.14.12) This is when the Vedas first became divided into branches, and when the Vedic rituals were first recommended for the purification of people’s minds, bodies, senses, and consciousness. The threefold sacrifice is recognized in its form as when the Hota priest offers oblations in the ritual fire and chants the Rig Veda; the Udgata priest chants the Sama Veda; and the Adhvaryu priest arranges the sacred ground and altar where the ritual is held and chants the Yajur Veda. This was the recommended process for spiritual advancement at that time.

Both physical and spiritual blessing could be gained through fire sacrifice in Tretā yuga

“In the Tretā-yuga the four social orders were manifested from the universal form of the Supreme Lord. The Brahmānas appeared from the Lord’s face, the Kshatriyas from His arms; the Vaishyas from the Lord’s thighs, and the Shudras from the legs of that mighty form. Each social division was recognized by its particular duties and behavior.” (Srimad-Bhāgavatam 11.17.13) This meant that everyone was a part of the Lord’s universal form, and that they were Divine in their internal and essential nature. It also meant that according to their natural talents, interests and proclivities, everyone had a part to play through which was the function of a harmonious social body.

In Tretā-yuga, priests (Brahmāna), rulers (kshatriya), merchants & farmers (vaishya), craftsmen and servants (shudra) all worked together in social harmony as a sacrifice for God

The Padma Purāṇa (7.26.6-9) also says that in Tretā-yuga unhappiness appeared and affected some people. Most people were kind and engaged in the worship of Vishnu. They were happy and had a composed mind. They all followed the religious stages of human life. The Brahmānas mastered the Vedas, were noble and true to their words. They always engaged in penances and vows, had control over their senses, and were averse to accepting charity or gifts. In this regard, the Vāyu Purāṇa (57.81-84) also explains: “Sacrifice, charity, penance, and truthfulness are the holy rites in Tretā-yuga. During this age, Dharma functions in accordance with the social divisions of life. Danda-niti (administration of Justice) aims at the establishment of the bounds of decency. All the subjects are jolly, well built, free from ailments. Their minds are fully contented. Only a single unified Veda with four sub-divisions prevails in Tretā-yuga. Surrounded by sons and grandsons, people die in due order [of old age]. This is the characteristic feature of the Tretā Age.”In the Bhagavat Purāṇa their lifespan is said to be 10,000 years, and bodily height reaches 14 cubits (21 ft).

In Tretā-yuga great cities with beautiful gardens were built, and dedicated to ‘Purusha’ or God. Thus, even in Kali yuga, many ancient cities still end with the name puri, polis, bury and berg

Bhāgavata Purāṇa 11.5.24-25: “In Tretā-yuga the Lord appears with a red complexion. He has four arms, golden hair, and wears a triple belt representing initiation into each of the three Vedas. Embodying the knowledge of worship by sacrificial performance, which is contained in the Ṛg, Sāma and Yajur Vedas, His symbols are the ladle, spoon and other implements of sacrifice. In Tretā-yuga, those members of human society who are fixed in religiosity and are sincerely interested in achieving the Absolute Truth worship Lord Hari, who contains within Himself all the demigods. The Lord is worshiped by the rituals of sacrifice taught in the three Vedas.”

Description of the previous Tretā Yuga (from Vāyu Purāṇa Ch 57-59 v89-115):  (6,485,119 years ago)

“I shall mention how the Tretā-age sacrifices (yajñas) in the previous yuga cycle began. When there was plenty of rain, the plants grew and agriculture became established. People set about building houses, hermitages and cities. Then Indra the, enjoyer of the universe, arranged the division of castes and stages of life and compiled the Mantras into Saṁhitās. He prescribed specific Mantras for rites leading to fruits here and hereafter.

The Avatars and the Rishis taught the Veda and Saṁhitās in Tretā-yuga. They contained all the rituals and mantras necessary for perfection through sacrifice

Thus, Indra, the enjoyer of the universe, along with other Devas, initiated Yajña ( the institution of sacrifice) together with all its requisites. When the horse-sacrifice was instituted, the sages arrived there and began to perform sacrifices with the holy sacrificial beasts. On hearing about it, people   assembled there to witness it. But violence was not approved as a means to Dharma by the great sages. For the same reason, the sages do not unduly praise charity or Yajña. By making gifts of even insignificant articles such as bulbous root, fruit, vegetables or waterpot, in accordance with their means, the sages have become established in heaven. However, by the perfect execution of the animal sacrifice ritual, the animals’ pain was insignificant compared to the instant attainment, by those beasts, of human and celestial bodies.

Wonderful beings and celestial objects could be manifest in the fire yajña

In the beginning of Tretā, Manu and the Seven Sages popularised the sacred rites of Vedic  and  Smṛti  origin, directed by  Brahmā. The Seven Sages expatiated on the Vedic sacred rites such as Marriage, Agnihotra and the like on the basis of Ṛk, Yajur and Sāman. The Svāyaṁbhuva Manu expatiated on the conduct of life based on Smṛti injunctions. traditionally handed  down and referring to the duties of the different castes  and stages of life.

The Seven Sages and Manu were endowed with truthfulness, celibacy, learning and penance. They had performed penance in accordance with the order of sages. Hence in the beginning of Tretā  Yuga, the Mantras manifested themselves to them without their undergoing physical or mental  effort. In the first Kalpa those Mantras along with Tāraka (Oṁkāra) and others had already appeared  before the Devas.

The seven sages instructed the kings sacred knowledge and the duties of governance

When the original Siddhis (magical powers) ceased to exist, these other mantras began to function. Thousands of those Mantras which existed in past Kalpas manifested themselves in their intellect once again. The Seven Sages popularised the Ṛg, Yajur, Sāman and the Atharvan mantras and Manu propagated the rites in accordance with Smṛtis.

In the beginning of Tretā, the Vedas were un­divided because Dharma alone prevailed. In Dvāpara age they are divided and studied separately due to the shortage of life. Ārambha (expedition or enterprise) was a sacrifice for Kṣatriyas. Havis (offering of ghee etc. ) was the yajña to Vaiśyas. Śūdras had service as Yajña  and excellent Brāhmaṇas had Japa (chanting of Mantras) as their yajña. All the castes rejoiced  in Tretā age. They were protected righteously. They performed holy rites. They were happy and flourishing. They were blessed with all necessities of live and good progeny.

By performing sacrifice, yajña, all the necessities of life were abundantly provided

Kṣatriyas obeyed the (advice etc. of) Brāhmaṇas, Vaiśyas obeyed Kṣatriyas, Śūdras followed Vaiśyas. People cooperated and collaborated with one another. Their activities were auspicious. Their holy rites and duties of castes and stages of life too were auspicious, in thought, mind, words and actions. Thus in Tretā age their activities remained unimpaired. In Tretāyuga, people were equally endowed with the same span of life, good intellect, strength, beauty, health and righteousness.

In order to check and control those men who commit sins in secret and are difficult to be subdued, and in order to establish righteousness on the  earth, the divisions of castes have been laid down in Tretā Yuga. The compilations of Vedic texts, both Mantras and Brāhmaṇas, have been made by the sages. Truthfulness, Japa, penance and charity are the main virtues in Tretā age. The practice of holy rites and rituals declines and the virtue of truthfulness prevails.

Their eyes were as large as lotus petals. Their chests were broad, and their bodies were well-built. They were vigorous and capable of slaying lions. They walked majestically like the elephants in a rut. They wielded great bows. They were endowed with all good characteristics.

In the previous Manu, King Prithu created the first cities and villages, He even levelled hilly areas to facilitate agriculture. He made sure the Earth was abundant with produce, and that every citizen was happy and content

Wealth, dharma, love, fame and victory attained by kings without any conflict are on a par with one another. They excel even the sages by means of (spiritual powers such as) Aṇimā (minuteness ) and others the power of Lordship, learning and penance. They overpower Devas, Dānavas and human beings by their strength and  austere penance.

They are born with super-human marks visible on their bodies. They have a circle of hair on their forehead ( between the eyebrows) ; their tongue sweeps their mouths. Their teeth and lips are copper-coloured; their hair stand facing up; and they have the Śrīvatsa scar ( on the chest).

Their arms extend to their knees; their palms are marked with net and bull ; they are very tall (Nyagrodha-parimaṇḍalas); they have shoulders like those of lions; their penises are well shaped. Their gait is as stately as  that of a lordly elephant. Their chin bones are  broad.

There are lines of wheel and fish on the soles of their feet and of conch and lotus on their palms. They live up to eighty five thousand years as kings without signs of old age. They have unimpeded movement in four places, viz. in the firmament, in the ocean, in the nether regions and on the mountains.

Sacrifice, charity, penance and truthfulness are the holy rites in Tretā Age. During this age, Dharma functions in accordance with the division of castes  and  stages of life. Daṇḍa-nīti (administration of

Justice) , aims at the establishment of the bounds of decency. All the subjects are jolly, well built, free from ailments. Their minds are fully contented.

The inhabitants of Tretā-yuga were described as dharmiṣṭhāḥ and Brahmā-vādinaḥ, or thoroughly religious, and expert followers of the Vedic injunctions, jijñāsavaḥ, desiring to know the Absolute Truth. Otherwise they are described as martyāḥ, or subject to the weakness of mortal beings.

Only a single unified Veda with four sub-divisions prevails in Tretā Age. By the end of the yuga, people live up to three thousand years. Surrounded by sons and grandsons, people die in due order (of seniority in age). This is the characteristic feature of Tretā Age. Understand the transition from Tretā Yuga to Dvāpara Yuga is called Tretā-Sandhyā. The traits of Tretā Age continue to one-fourth of the Sandhyā, and the traits in the Sandhyā continue to one-fourth of the next Yuga.”

Colonies and trading provinces of Bharata prior to the Mahabharata War 5,000 years ago

DVĀPARA YUGA  (869,112 years ago)


In describing the characteristics of Dvāpara-yuga, the Bhāgavatam states that there is another 25 percent reduction in religion, virtue, and spiritual values, with a further increase in vice. People are interested in fame, glory, and nobility. They are opulent, have large families, enjoy life, and engage in the study of the Vedas.

When Dvāpara sets in, all the four orders become capable of great exertion, endued with great energy, and desirous of conquering one another, and live for 1,000 years. We can understand the Christian books of the Old Testament describe the many battles by Kings, west of Aryavata, who lived for such long lives during the the Dvāpara Age. Throughout the far reaches of Bharata-varsha are remnants of huge stone temples and places of worship.

Techniques of rock shaping and construction that were widespread in Dvāpara yuga have been forgotten in this age

The Padma Purāṇa (7.26.10-13) says that when Dvāpara-yuga arrived, some men were pious while others were engrossed in sins. Some were happy and others were extremely unhappy. That is also when Kings began to harass their subjects [through taxation] due to greed for wealth. The godly and ungodly could be born in the same family, such as the Pandava and Kaurava cousins of the Great Mahabharata War.

The Vāyu Purāṇa (58.24-25) also explains that in Dvāpara-yuga difference of opinion begins among men and life becomes arduous, involving bodily strain. Covetousness, wars, diseases, slaughter, breakdowns in social rules and systems, and passion and hatred grow.

The Vāyu Purāṇa (58.3-5) continues: “The following vices begin to appear in the people at the time of Dvāpara: covetousness, lack of fortitude, a trading mentality, war-mindedness, indecision about principles, indecision about duties, destruction of sacrificial plants and animals, pride, arrogance, impatience, and weakness. These vices provoked by raja and tama-gunas [the mindset of passion and ignorance] prevail in Dvāpara-yuga. In Krita-yuga, Dharma [righteous duty and spiritual pursuits] is natural, in Tretā it is sought and attained, in Dvāpara-yuga it becomes agitated and intensely affected, and in Kali-yuga it is scarce and then completely perishes.”

“When Dvāpara yuga arrived, Brahmā noticed that people were becoming evil and were no longer paying sufficient attention to the Vedas. They were gradually deviating from the righteous path. Brahama decided that the Vedas needed to be divided so that their wisdom might be disseminated amongst people. Brahmā accordingly instructed Krishna Dvaipayana Vedavyasa to divide the Vedas into four parts.”

“In Dvāpara-yuga, rival (theologies and texts) crop up against the scriptures which were honored formerly in the first Svāyambhuva Manvantara. There are variations and alterations in the science of Ayurveda, Jyotisha, and the ancillaries of the Vedas. There are doubts and variations in regard to the texts on political economy and logic. There are diversities and variations in the Smriti texts. Separate systems and schools (of theology and philosophy) are established. Therefore, in Dvāpara-yuga, difference of opinion starts among men.” (Vāyu Purāṇa 58.22-23)

Described above is the reason why there are different forms of spiritual paths or religions, which then begin to fight with one another for rank and superiority. This is utterly ridiculous because spirituality is to help all people gain insight into who and what they really are, beyond the body and mind, and over and above mental speculation or mere religion. It is to connect one to the soul directly. Yet, if people are so much focused merely on differences of opinion, then no one advances very far at all. And this diversity, as it is explained above, is also what keeps those who follow Vedic Dharma from being unified in their culture and amongst each other, but instead form different schools of thought based on their own perceptions of variations between the Smriti and Shruti texts.

The story of the tower of Babel has been linked to Ravana’s threat to build a stairway to heaven in the epic Ramayana. The Lord’s intervention of creating different languages to quash atheistic rebellion, is symbolic of the fracturing of the Vedic Empire by the Mahabharata War and the ensuing age of confusion called Kali-yuga. The dispersion of nations occurred around 2242 BC according to Christian historians, eg: Ussher [The Annals of the World, p. 22.]

The point is, they are all meant to help everyone advance in understanding the various levels of perceiving the Absolute Truth. Yet, when we do not see this unity and instead perceive various differences, then the diversity of opinion becomes the focal point, which is a reason for a lack of cooperation and united efforts, or even quarrels and fights amongst those who would otherwise appear to be following the same path. This becomes but another distraction on the path to Truth, and another reason for the discord in society and between those who seek the Absolute Truth. Thus, it perpetuates increased disruption and a lack of harmony in society and between religious groups.

It is further explained (Vāyu Purāṇa 58.25-27) that, “The life of all living beings in Dvāpara-yuga becomes arduous involving bodily strain. Livelihood is possible only by mental, verbal and physical strain [unlike the ease found in previous yugas]. Covetousness, lack of fortitude, mercantile activities, wars, indecision in regard to philosophical principles, [the unnecessary] handling and editing of the Vedic knowledge, inter-mixture of holy rites, diseases, sickness, greed, slaughter, breakdown in the system and rules of the varnas [social divisions] and ashramas of life, and susceptibility to passion and hatred–all these become rampant in Dvāpara-yuga.”

The Battle at Kurukshetra 3143 BC, the world war at the end of Dvāpara yuga

Description of Dvāpara Yuga from the Vāyu Purāṇa:

In the beginning of Dvāpara, the attainment of Siddhis by the people is as it was in Tretā Yuga. But as the Yuga advances, the Siddhis disappear. Then the following vices begin to appear in the people at the time of Dvāpara. : covetousness, lack of fortitude, trading mentality, war-mindedness, indecision about principles, inter-mixture of castes,  indecision about duties, destruction of sacrificial plants and animals, pride, arrogance, impatience and weakness. These vices provoked by Rajas and Tamas gradually prevail in Dvāpara Age.

In Dvāpara Age Brahmānas began to disregard  the rules of conduct and stages of life. Formerly there was one Yajurveda ; later it was divided into white and black Yajurveda. This entire scriptural lore became confused by the general and perverted interpretations. By means of innumerable alterations and variations, the Atharva, Rig and Sama Veda have also been confused in Dvāpara by the people of different views. These diverse and different versions do not perish in spite of alterations in Dvāpara Age. They continue to function but in Kaliyuga they perish. Because ritual mantras and sacrifices can no longer be performed perfectly, they are abandoned and are replaced by the process of diety worship. Liberation was achieved through offering the Deity and the service, articles of worship, foods in the mode of goodness, prayers, service to the Brahmānas, and one’s very self.

Many temples are built for the opulent worship of Nārāyaṇa, but due to degradation of Smrti texts, by the end of the yuga, there are different opinions as to how worship should be conducted, and who should be worshipped. The worship of Demigods, independent of Nārāyaṇa and Mahadeva, becomes a prominent misconception.

Effects of these contrarieties and errors take shape in Dvāpara itself as calamities such as draughts, premature deaths, epidemics. Due to miseries born of verbal, mental and physical acts, despondency and  indifference to worldly life  sets  in, as a result of which they begin to ponder over the ways of relief from misery.

The pondering leads to detachment ; from detachment, defects ( of the worldly life) are seen. As a result of seeing defects, there is the possibility of spiritual knowledge in Dvāpara Age. In Dvāpara Age, rival (scriptures and sects) crop up against the scriptures which were honoured formerly in the first Svāyambhuva Manvantara. There are variations and alterations in the science of Ayurveda, Jyotisa and the ancillaries of the Vedas; there are doubts and variations in regard to the texts on political economy and logic. There are diversities and variations in the Smrti texts. Separate systems and schools (of theology and philosophy ) arc established. In Dvāpara Yuga difference of opinion starts among men.

Legends of great wars and heroes is characteristic of the Dvāpara age

The life of all living beings in Dvāpara Age becomes arduous involving bodily strain. Livelihood is possible only by mental, verbal  and physical strain. Covetousness, lack of fortitude, mercantile activities, wars, indecision in regard to philosophical principles, handling and editing of the Vedic texts, inter-mixture of holy. rites, diseases, sickness, greed, slaughter, breakdown in the system and rules of castes and stages of life, and susceptibility to passion and hatred – all these are  rampant  in  Dvāpara Age.

Relics of the Dvāpara Age.

It has been conjectured by modern researchers that civilization results from agriculture and specialization of trades, and that language and religion follows. They base civilization on evidence of cities, but this has been refuted by the discovery of temples in Gobekli,  Southern Turkey, where nomadic hunters and gatherers came to practice religious rituals and worship of deities. Here, in the 9th millennium before Christ, there are temples, yet no cities or agriculture. Amongst popular deities of 40 to 10 thousand years ago, are the statues of the Man-Lion deity, Narasimha. 12,000 year old statues of the standing man-lion are found in Gobekli-Tepe and in the 40,000 year old Hohlenstein caves in Germany. Also found at Gobekli-Tepe is the defaced head of a Vedic Priest, identified by the ‘sikha’ or pony-tail of hair on a characteristic shaven head of a Vaisnava Brahmin.

40,000 year old ivory deity of Narasimha from the Hohlenstein Stadel cave in Germany

12,000 year old Narasimha deity from Gobekli Tepe (defaced by Muslims)

A defaced Brahmin head with sikha, Gobekli-Tepe 9,000 BC, compared with the typical sikha of an Indian brahmin today

8,000 year old figurines and deities found in a burial site, Turkey

Remnants of a forgotten technology – miniature golden aircraft from Peru, which fly when tested in a wind tunnel

Decorative 3-faced Shiva, and the ‘Priest King” from the Indus Valley 3000 BCE

KALI YUGA  (started  5,121 years ago)   [as of 2019]


Kali Yuga – the dark age of quarrel, hypocrisy and sinful activities

Finally, we come to the age of Kali-yuga in which, as explained in the Bhāgavatam, there is a continued decrease in virtue until at the end it will practically disappear. In fact, the ever-increasing presence of impiety reduces all religious principles to nil. This also paves the way for an increase of strife, vice, ignorance, and all sorts of irreligious activities. Life becomes more and more difficult and is especially dangerous for those interested in spiritual realization because there are so many false paths that provide no real or deep truth, but merely blind faith in dogmatic beliefs. Gradually, in the age of Kali, spirituality becomes nothing more than a vague form of Buddhism. Because of all the strife, problems, and wickedness, people in Kali-yuga are lucky if they can live up to 100 years of age. In this age both godly and ungodly take birth in the one body, an internal conflict between good and bad.

At the beginning of the yuga, some 3,000 ago, deity worship was still the prominent mode of religion. In the ancient near-east and Mediterranean, both household worship of small deities and construction of gigantic deities continued. The statue of Athena in Athens, the statue of Zeus in Olympia, the colossal Helios of Rhodes, and the Sphinx at Cairo are famous examples. The giant carved Buddhas of South East Asia, the Easter Island heads, Jesus at Rio and the Statue of Liberty continue the tradition of megalithic deity veneration into the Kali yuga.

The tradition of megalithic deity construction continues in Kali Yuga

The Padma Purāṇa (7.26.15-17) elaborates that in Kali-yuga, which is the abode of sins, everyone is involved in sinful activities. Misguided people censure the Vedas or spiritual truths, and engage in gambling and stealing. Brahmānas [spiritual and intellectual priests] will act fraudulently for a livelihood. Everyone will be addicted to women, sex, and intoxicating liquors. They will be stealing others’ wealth. Heretics and atheists will become prominent. Also (Padma Purāṇa 3.7.13-14) men born in Kali-yuga will possess little luster and will be wrathful, greedy, untruthful, and be filled with jealousy, pride, anger, deceit, and malice.

“Men will be be filled with jealousy, pride, anger, deceit, and malice”

The Mahabharata (Shanti Parva, 232.36) also relates that as the age of Kali continues, gradually all the Vedic literature will become so scarce that there will be a time when they are no longer seen by men. The world being afflicted by iniquity, they become extinct along with the rituals and spiritual practices established by them.

The Vishnu Purāṇa states “In the Kali age, Maitreya, men, corrupted by unbelievers, will refrain from adoring Vishńu, the lord of sacrifice, the creator and lord of all; and will say, “Of what authority are the Vedas? what are gods or Brahmins? what need is there of purification with water?” Then will the clouds yield scanty rain: then will the corn be light in ear, and the grain will be poor, and of little sap.” “Pride of wealth will be inspired by very insignificant possessions. Pride of beauty will be prompted by (no other personal charm than fine) hair. Gold, jewels, diamonds, clothes, will all have perished, and then hair will be the only ornament with which women can decorate themselves. Wives will desert their husbands, when they lose their property; and they only who are wealthy will be considered by women as their lords.

“Women will follow their inclinations, desert their husbands and be ever fond of pleasure”

He who gives away much money will be the master of men; and family descent will no longer be a title of supremacy. Accumulated treasures will be expended on (ostentatious) dwellings. The minds of men will be wholly occupied in acquiring wealth; and wealth will be spent solely on selfish gratifications. Women will follow their inclinations, and be ever fond of pleasure. Men will fix their desires upon riches, even though dishonestly acquired. No man will part with the smallest fraction of the smallest coin, though entreated by a friend. Men of all degrees will conceit themselves to be equal with Brahmins. Cows will be held in esteem only as they supply milk. The people will be almost always in dread of dearth, and apprehensive of scarcity; and will hence ever be watching the appearances of the sky: they will all live, like anchorets, upon leaves and roots and fruit, and put a period to their lives through fear of famine and want”

People will always be fearful of war, famine and disaster in Kali Yuga

In the Linga Purāṇa (1.3.2) it is stated: Describing about the decline in moral values during Kaliyuga, Indra told Shilad – In Kaliyuga, people will be under the total influence of the worldly illusions. Ignorance diseases, fear and hunger will be prevalent everywhere. Famine and drought would occur quite frequently as the fall out of inadequate rain. Sinners would outnumber the virtuous people would deviate from the path of religiousness. Brahmins would lose their superiority and Shudras would become the rulers. Brahmins will not be respected and will be forced to serve the lowly people. Majority of women would be immoral and progenies would not obey the commands of their parents.

“In Kaliyuga, people will be under the total influence of the worldly illusions”

The Bhagavat Purāṇa (Canto12,Ch.2) states: “Religion, truthfulness, cleanliness, tolerance, mercy, duration of life, physical strength and memory will all diminish day by day because of the powerful influence of the age of Kali. In Kali-yuga, wealth alone will be considered the sign of a man’s good birth, proper behavior and fine qualities. And law and justice will be applied only on the basis of one’s power. Men and women will live together merely because of superficial attraction, and success in business will depend on deceit. Womanliness and manliness will be judged according to one’s expertise in sex, and a man will be known as a Brahmin just by his wearing a thread. A person’s spiritual position will be ascertained merely according to external symbols, and on that same basis people will change from one spiritual order to the next. A person’s propriety will be seriously questioned if he does not earn a good living. And one who is very clever at juggling words will be considered a learned scholar. A person will be judged unholy if he does not have money, and hypocrisy will be accepted as virtue.

“In Kali-yuga wealth will be spent on very insignificant possessions solely for selfish gratification”

Marriage will be arranged simply by verbal agreement, and a person will think he is fit to appear in public if he has merely taken a bath. A sacred place will be taken to consist of no more than a reservoir of water located at a distance, and beauty will be thought to depend on one’s hairstyle. Filling the belly will become the goal of life, and one who is audacious will be accepted as truthful. He who can maintain a family will be regarded as an expert man, and the principles of religion will be observed only for the sake of reputation. As the earth thus becomes crowded with a corrupt population, whoever among any of the social classes shows himself to be the strongest will gain political power. Losing their wives and properties to such avaricious and merciless rulers, who will behave no better than ordinary thieves, the citizens will flee to the mountains and forests. Harassed by famine and excessive taxes, people will resort to eating leaves, roots, flesh, wild honey, fruits, flowers and seeds. Struck by drought, they will become completely ruined.

The maximum duration of life for human beings in Kali-yuga will become fifty years. By the time the age of Kali ends, the bodies of all creatures will be greatly reduced in size. Most plants and herbs will be tiny, and all trees will appear like dwarf camé trees. Clouds will be full of lightning, homes will be devoid of piety, and all human beings will have become like asses.

There will be no end to the evil and atrocities of Kali yuga

In the Padma Purāṇa, the personification of Bhakti (the goal of religion) asks the sage Narada why the evil personality of Kali was not banished from the Earth when he was arrested for breaking the legs of Dharma by King Pariksit.

Padma Purāṇa, Uttara Khanda, Srimad Bhāgavata-mahatmya, ch. 1:  Nārada said, “O auspicious young lady, now that you have asked, please hear me with attention as I explain everything and thus relieve your misery. Kali-yuga took control and started obstructing auspiciousness the day Lord Krsna left this planet for His abode. When King Pariksita travelled on earth, conquering all the kings, he met Kali, who fell at his feet and took shelter of him. The king, who understood the essence of things just like the bumble bee, decided not to kill him because that goal which is not attainable by penance, yoga meditation, or samadhi, is easily attained in Kali-yuga simply by performing hari-kirtana. Although the king knew that Kali-yuga was useless, he spotted this one essential good quality, and understanding that this would make the living beings happy, he spared him. Because humanity is engaged in irreligious and immoral acts, everything has lost its essence. All objects, including the seeds of the earth, are ineffective.

The Brahmānas, being greedy for wealth, are performing Bhāgavata-katha in peoples houses and therefore the essence of katha is lost. Immoral, atheistic, and sinful people have begun to reside in the holy places, causing the influence of those places to be lost. Those people whose hearts are always filled with lust, greed and anger make a show of performing austerities, thereby causing the essence of penance to be lost. Because people are unable to control their mind, they have taken shelter of greed, pretence, and immorality, and have given up the study of scriptures, causing the influence of jnana-yoga to be lost. Moreover, the pandits, or scholars, are only expert in producing children and enjoying sex like buffaloes. They are no longer expert in the process of liberation. Furthermore, there are hardly any Vaisnavas coming in bonafide sampradayas and there, everywhere all objects have become ineffective. This indeed, is due to the influence of Kali and is not the defect of anyone else. Therefore, although the lotus-eyed Lord resides near by, He tolerates this.”

Are You Lost In The World Like Me – animation by Steve Cutts

Description of a Previous Kali Yuga, from the Vāyu Purāṇa.

(The Vāyu Purāṇa was not composed in this yuga, but many cycles ago, in this kalpa)

The Vāyu Purāṇa (Ch 57-59) describes the characteristics of a previous Kaliyuga in great detail. “All Kali yugas are filled with violence, jealousy, falsehood, deception and the slaughter of ascetics. These are the characteristics of Kali Age which people inherit. Affected by the traits of the Age, virtue and  Dharma always deteriorates. People have great difficulty maintaining their  livelihood, often nothing is achieved even by providing the mental strain, physical exertion or prayers.”

“In the previous Kali Age, there were fatal diseases. There was perpetual fear of hunger. There was terrible danger of drought. Vision was blurred and rendered perverse.

“In the previous Kali Age, there were fatal diseases, hunger and drought”

As the last Kaliyuga progressed, people did not accept the authority of scripture. Some died in the womb, others died in youth. Some died in old age and some in childhood. In Kali age people were unrighteous, unmindful of the rules of conduct, fierce in anger but deficient in power and splendour. They were always utter falsehood. There was danger and fear from people owing to wrong performance of sacrifices, neglect of studies, evil conduct, misleading religious scriptures and from faults in the performance of holy  rites of Brahmānas. In that Kali age creatures were affected by passion and greed. They became violent, deceptive, malicious, hot-tempered, impatient and untruthful.

There was much of agitation and turbulence at the advent of Kaliyuga. There was no regular study of the Vedas. The Brahmānas did not perform Yajñas. All men inclusive of Kattriyas and Vaisyas gradually decayed. Low-born and insignificant persons sharing beds, seats and food with Brahmānas in that Age. Kings were mainly Sudras propagating heretic ideas. People never hesitated to kill a child in the womb. They behaved in such a way. Longevity, intellect, strength, beauty and family prestige all declined. Sudras behaved like Brahmānas and Brahmānas  adopted the ways of Sudras.

When the end of the Yuga approached, thieves and robbers administered their kingdoms like kings ; kings adopted the methods of thieves and robbers. Servants were bereft of love, friendship and loyalty ( to their masters). Women became unchaste and disinterested in holy rites. They became fond of wine and meat. When Kali Age had set in, they resorted to deceptive means. In Kali Age beasts of prey became more numerous and powerful. Cattle died and dwindled. Saintly men withdrew and kept aloof.

“Cattle died and dwindled at the close of Kali Yuga”

At that time excessive fruitfulness and subtle Dharma became very difficult to access. The bull of Dharma was shaking on one leg, because the conduct of life of those who were enjoying, in the various stages of life, was loose and unbridled. Then, when the end of the age approached, the great goddess of the earth only yielded tiny fruits. In that Kali yuga, Sudras began to perform penance, since piety practised for one day in Kali Yuga is equal to that practised for a month in Dvāpara-yuga  and a year in the Tretā Age.

The kings never protected the subjects. They appropriated their shares in oblations. Towards the end of  the Yuga, they became eager solely to protect themselves. The kings did not belong to the Kṣatriya  clan. Vaiśyas maintained themselves with the help of Sudras. The noble Brahmānas performed obeisances to Sudras at the end of that Kali Age. In that Age there was wicked persons in the guise of sages. When that Yuga was about to come to a close, the god of rains will showered in a mysteriously haphazard manner. In this base Yuga, people had the propensity to trade, but by false measures, the buyers were deceived of  their due share of goods.

“wicked persons in the guise of sages”

The whole society abounded with heretics of false appearance who conducted foul activities. Men were in a minority and women were many, as the end of Kaliyuga approached. People were begging too much of each other. They habitually ate meat . They used harsh words. They were not be straightforward or free from jealousy. No one helped in return for the help they received. People got emaciated and weak. They indulged unhesitatingly in activities which caused downfall. This was characteristic as the Yuga come to a close.

“In Kali Yuga the police no longer protected the citizens”

The earth was devoid of good men. It was desolate. In countries and cities, there was racism and hate crimes. The earth will was deficient in water and less fertile. The police did not protect the citizens, and often took control of the government. People stole others’ gems and jewels. They molested other’s wives and children. They were  passionate with a wicked heart. They would revel in violent sinful activities. The men had dark and savage minds.  They keep their hair untied and dishevelled. Towards the close of the Yuga, men less than sixteen years begin to procreate.

“Cheating Gurus with fake smiles, shaven heads and orange robes proclaimed themselves ‘master of the senses’ in Kali Yuga”

In that Kali yuga, cheating  gurus, with fake smiles, shaven heads and orange robes, performed sacred rites and proclaimed that they had conquered the sense-organs. There were thieves stealing food and garments. There were looters robbing other robbers and abducting murderers. When the people became inactive in religious matters,  the worms, mice and serpents began to attack then. Abundance, welfare, good health and ability will became rare. Owls will began to infest those countries afflicted with fear of hunger.

Yajñas were forsaken, and there were many types of heretics, like  wearers of ochre-coloured robes (Buddhists), Jainas and Kapalikas (skull-bearing mendicants). There were sellers of the Vedas and of the sacred places. Heretics antagonistic to the discipline and arrangement of different castes and stages of life took birth. The Vedas were studied less and less until Sudras became the experts and authorities in the affairs of religion. The Vedas were seen in some places, and not seen in others. When Dharma is harassed Yajñas are forsaken.

“The citizens murdered women, slaughtered cows and were addicted to eating meat”

The leaders born of uncultured women did not perform Yajñas, they were greedy and did not understand the principle of sacrifice. The citizens murdered women and slaughtered cows. Coming to mutual clash, people killed one another, and in this way, they tried to accomplish their objectives.

Due to the spread of misery, people were short­lived. Whole countries and peoples were exterminated. Sickness, delusion, dejection, unhappiness and all Tamasic activities prevailed in that Kali Age. People performed abortion in the womb. With the advent of Kali, longevity, strength and  beauty declined. The maximum life expectation of these people afflicted by misery gradually reduced from one hundred years down to twenty five years.

There is was only one benefit of that Kaliyuga. At that time men attained Siddhi (perfection) in a short time. Those Blessed People lead excellent Brahmānas to perform holy rites at the end of that Yuga.

For those who perform the holy rites enjoined by the Srutis and Smrtis, without the least tinge of jealousy, the performance of holy rites for a year in Tretā Yuga is equal to that for a month in Dvāpara Age. An intelligent man performing these in Kali Age according to his capacity,  shall attain the same fruit  in a day. This is the condition in the Kali Age.”


Suta Goswami said: Now here from me the transition from the last Kali-yuga to the Satya-yuga at the beginning of our present cycle. When the close of the Yuga approached (Sandhyámsa), a king was born in the Lunar Dynasty. He was called Pramiti, the chastiser of the wicked people, an empowered portion of the Supreme Lord Vishnu who had lived previously in the Svāyaṁbhuva Manvantara.

He wandered over the earth for full twenty years. He led an army consisting of cavalry, chariots and elephants. He was surrounded by hundreds and thousands of Brahmānas armed with weapons. He killed Mlecchas by the thousands. He went everywhere. After killing the kings born of Sudra women,  he exterminated the heretics, hypocrites, impersonalists and voidists.

Vishnu appeared as Lord Pramiti at the end of a previous Kali Yuga, and destroyed all the sinful people with his cakra weapon, Sudharshana

He killed thousands of persons who were not religious and righteous. He killed those born of mixed castes as well as those who depended on them. He  killed  the Udicyas (northerners) , Madhya Delyas ( people of the Middle Land ), mountain-dwellers, easterners, westerners, dwellers in Vindhya and Aparanta. He killed the southerners, Dravidas, Simhalas, Gindharas, Piradas, Pahlavas, Yavanas, Tusaras, Barbaras, Cinas, Salikas, Daradas, Khasas, Larilpakas, Ketas, and the different tribes of Kiratas. Setting his divine chakra weapon in motion, the powerful lord , the destroyer of Mlecchas, roamed over the earth. He could not be thwarted by any living being as he was a part of Lord Vishnu.

He was thirty two when He started his victorious march. For twenty years, he continued to slay men and other living beings by the thousands. Due to the anger provoked by the unrighteous Vnalas, he subdued them also. By his firm action, he rendered the earth into a relic, a memento of his valour. Thereafter, at the confluence of the holy Ganga and Yamuna rivers, he, along with his followers, attained Vaikuntha (the spiritual world).

After the extermination of thousands of sinful kings and Mlecchas, there fell on the land a Sandhya, which was like the darkness before the dawn of the new day. Only a few of the people remained scattered here and there, desperate, wandering in groups. They harassed one another and sought help of one another.

As a result of the Yuga coming to a close, there was doubt and suspense everywhere among the people and anarchy prevailed. They became frightened of one another and were exhausted and agitated. Eager to preserve their own lives, they left their children, wives and homes. They became extremely miserable and many died.

In the absence of Dharma, people killed one another without decency, affection, friendship or shame. Their span of life dwindled to twenty five years. They became stunted like pygmies, their sense-organs became agitated and their minds dejected. Oppressed by drought and scanty rain, they were forced to abandon cultivation. Being utterly miserable, they left their homelands and countries, and searched for foreign places to live.

They resorted to live along rivers, oceans and mountains, or near wells. They maintained themselves on fruits and roots, wine and meat. They were very miserable. They wore bark garments and deer skins. They had no wives or sons. There was no social order. They resorted to terrible promiscuous sex with any gender, family member, clan, caste or beast.

They reached the limit of misery. Only a few of them survived. They were oppressed by old age, sickness and hunger. Due to misery they became indifferent to worldly existence. Due to this despondency and indifference, they began to ponder.

By pondering over and over they attained the state of equanimity. In the state of equanimity they were enlightened. Due to enlightenment they became pious. When those subjects surviving at the end of Kali Age were thus enlightened, in a single day and night the Yuga was transformed.

After making their minds enchanted, Krtayuga set in due to the power of the inevitable destiny. When Krtayuga began to function again, the few subjects surviving from  Kaliyuga became the subjects of Krtayuga.

Those few Siddhas whohad  stayed from previous yugas now moved about and were seen clearly. The Seven Celestial Sages were also ever present there. Brahmānas, Kattriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras were able to serve as seeds for future generations. The Seven Sages  instructed all in the two types of Dharma prescribed by Srutis and Smrtis as well as in the conduct pertaining to the castes and stages of life.

Then as Krta Yuga blossomed,  the people began to perform the sacred rites. To establish Dharma among the subjects, the Sages remained in authority over the whole of  the land, and lived to the end of the Yuga. Just as new shoots grow from the roots of grasses that are burnt during the summer in the forest-fire, so also the new Yuga grows out of the old Yuga. Till the end of the Manvantara this series goes on without break.

Happiness, longevity, strength, beauty, virtue (Dharma), wealth and love-all these  become reduced by one fourth from one Yuga to another. During this Sandhyámsa of Kali and Krita Yugas, the Siddhis of Dharma become almost extinct. This Pratisandhi (the period of transition between Yugas) has now been narrated to you. Thus the characteristics of all four Yugas have been briefly mentioned, the Yugas of the past, present and future, and in all Manvantaras are like this.”


The mathematical progression of seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks and years are cyclical, whether we begin with the length of a breath in Manu Samhita, or the twinkling of an eye in the Surya Siddhanta, we end up with a 24 hour day. A day is thus 60 nadis or dandas, or 30 muhurtas, or 24 hours.

The week is always a 7 day cycle, based on the 7 ruling planets of Vedic astronomy, starting with the Sun and ending with Saturn (Shani). Thus we have the 24 hour day and the 7 day week followed all over the Earth today. The cycles of lunar months and fortnights were also important to Vedic astronomers, with each day of the lunar month and each month having a name.

There is even a natural cycle of 60 years – a cycle of planetary alignment – sometimes called Lunar Years or the Brihaspati (Jupiter) Cycle. It is divided into two equal parts. The first part is called aroha or ascending and the second is called avaroha, descending. Some economists have found that during the avaroha part the world economy goes down. Also, the 60 years cycle is divided into three equal parts. The first parts belongs to Brahma, the creation, the second part belongs to Vishnu the maintainer and the third part belongs to Shiva the destructor.

Every 60 years roughly, most of the planets end up in the same relationship with each other as they shared 60 years earlier. That is Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, the Sun, Venus and Mercury will all be in the same signs of the Zodiac that there were in roughly 60 years earlier in history. Vedic astronomers have named each year for the whole 60 year cycle, and each name has a meaning for the general nature of that year.

For example, the year 2019-2020 was called Vikari, or illness year, and we saw the emergence of the world-wide Corona virus. The year 2010-2021 of lockdowns and hopelessness was the Sharvari year – the year of darkness. Fortunately following this is the Plava year, which means “that-which ferries us across”, and the Shubhakrit is the one which ‘creates auspiciousness’ for year 2023.!

Next up is a division of 360 years, or a ‘year of the Devas’ called a Deva-Vatsara , consisting of six cycles of the Lunar Year cycle. Next is the lifespan of the Devas, which is 36,000 years, and a ‘yuga’ consists of 12 such periods.

The shortest yuga is called Kali, which lasts for 432,000 years, and the dawn of the yuga, called the Sandhya, lasts for 36,000 years, and the dusk of the yuga, the Sandhyana or Sandhyámsa, also lasts for 36,000 years. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada tells us these 12 divisions of the yuga are described in Sūrya-siddhānta.

[CC Adi:3:29 Prabhupada’s Purport: “The prathama-sandhyā is the beginning of the age. According to astronomical calculation, the age is divided into twelve parts. The first of these twelve divisions is known as the prathama-sandhyā. The prathama-sandhyā and śeṣa-sandhyā, the last division of the preceding age, form the junction of the two ages. According to the Sūrya-siddhānta, the prathama-sandhyā of Kali-yuga lasts 36,000 solar years. Lord Caitanya appeared in the prathama-sandhyā after 4,586 solar years of Kali-yuga had passed.”]

Siddhanta-Shiromani, Ch1v22: “For each yuga, one twelfth part is the start transition (yuga-sandhya-varsha) and one twelfth part is the end transition (yuga-sandhyāṁṣa-varsha).” There are four yugas, and their morality and duration decrease in the ratio 4:3:2:1, adding up to a Mahayuga of 4,320,000 years. This is also called a Divyāyuga or Caturyuga, which equals 12,000 Deva-vatsaras or ‘Years of the Devas’. As the yugas decrease in length in the ratio of 4:3:2:1, the sandyas or junctions  decrease from 144,000 years in Satya-yuga to 108,000 then 72,000 and finally 36,000 in the Kali Age.

Human Years Division Name
1 1 day of the Devas Deva Ahoratra
60 Cycle of 60 astronomical years Lunar Year Cycle
360 1 year of the Devas Deva Vatsara
36,000 100 years of the Devas Deva lifetime
432,000 1 yuga or 12 Deva-lives Yuga
4,320,000 1 Mahayuga, 120 Deva-lives Mahayuga or Caturyuga
306,720,000 71 Mahayugas, 1 Manu Manvantara, Age of Manu
4,294,080,000 14 Manvantaras, 1 Kalpa Kalpa, Daytime of Brahmā
8,588,160,000 2 Kalpas Day & Night of Brahmā
128,822,400,000 420 Manus Month of Brahmā
3,110,400,000,000 1 year of Brahmā Brahmā Varsha
311,040,000,000,000 100 years of Brahmā Brahmā lifetime


Mahapralaya – The End of Creation (every 627 Trillion years) – devastation of the Universe, at the end of 100 years of Brahmā’s life. All beings, energies and substance are drawn into the body of the Cosmic Maha Purusha as he inhales. The conditioned Jivas with their karma remain unmanifest for trillions of years, until the next exhalation of Mahavishnu, which creates  millions of universes, each containing a Nārāyaṇa, Shiva, a new Brahmā, and all the living entities, once again.

All beings, energies and substance are drawn into the body of the Cosmic Maha Purusha as he inhales

Naimittika Pralaya – The Change of Kalpas (every 8.64 billion years) – devastation at the end of Brahmā’s Day – the Lokas Janaloka, Tapoloka & Satyaloka remain unaffected during Brahmā’s night. Mahaloka and below are repopulated each morning of Brahmā’s day, through a sequence of 14 Manvantaras. The residents of Mahaloka are said to rise to Janaloka for the duration of Brahmā’s night.

The Vāyu Purāṇa states (Ch7) that at the time of this Pralaya the Gandharvas, Piśācas, Brāhmaṇas and other human beings, animals and birds, the immobile ones, reptiles and all the residents of the surface of the earth, watch as the 1,000 rays that emanate from the sun (getting combined and concentrated) become seven rays of the sun and each  ray (out of those seven rays) becomes a sun. Rising up gradually, they burn the three worlds, mobile and immobile beings, rivers and all  mountains. They had already been dried up by drought and are now burnt by the suns. Then all these – the mobile and immobile, both the pious and impious who are burnt by the rays of the sun, settle down and rest.

At the end of the Kali age, they go away with their bodies burnt, but  they are not freed from bodies derived from their pious or impious activities.  They are united with the people of Janaloka having the same form as they have. Abounding in purity they attain mental perfection. Having stayed there for the period of the night of Brahmā of unmanifest birth, they are born again as the mental sons of Brahmā, at the beginning of the creation (of the world).

When the residents of the three worlds thus function in Janaloka, and the three worlds are burnt down by the seven suns, when the earth is flooded with rain, when all abodes are scattered, the oceans, clouds and the earthly waters form a vast watery mass called ‘Salila’.

At the end of a thousand Maha-Yugas, when Brahmā’s day comes to an end, when, during the night everything is covered up with water, when the earth destroyed by the fire disappears in water, when the wind is calm and motionless, and darkness spreads around and there is no ray of light, Brahmā sleeps, the Lord Puruṣa a who presides over all these, desires to make the portion of this world once again.

Manvantara – The Change of Manu (every 306.7 million years) – The Sūrya-siddhānta states that at the end of each Manvantara there is a transition which brings a huge deluge of water (called a Saṃdhi Kāla which lasts for the duration of one Satya or Krita yuga) . SS Ch1v18: “Seventy-one yuga cycles is called a period of Manvantara. It has an ending transitional period of one Krita-yuga. During this transition there comes a huge deluge.”

A 290 million-year-old footprint found in New Mexico by paleontologist Jerry MacDonald in 1987

Stegosaurus fossils were first discovered in America and Portugal in the 19th century. They lived 150 million years ago. How is it that this image was carved in the 12th century at the Ankor Wat Temple in the Cambodian Jungle?

However, the Puranic version seems to state that these deluges are not at all consistent, as Bhaktivedanta Swami states: “ Generally there is no devastation at the change of Manu.”[note#1] As the Manu’s live for about 307 million years, different celestial personalities take birth as demigods and rishis each Manu. The Vishnu Purāṇa states that the Seven Rishis, certain (secondary) divinities, Indra, Manu, and the kings his sons, are created and perish at the interval called a Manvantara.

The Vāyu Purāṇa also states: “At the end of a Manvantara (Manu-period ), the Yuga-period connecting the two Manu-periods is not broken, but at the end of a Kalpa the Universe is annihilated up to Mahaloka.”

The Great World Flood is remembered in all religions

Note#[1] Srimad Bhāgavatam 1976. AC Bhaktivedanta Swami’s commentary to verse SB:8.24.37 – Pulling the boat, with you and all the ṛṣis in it, O King, I shall travel in the water of devastation until the night of Lord Brahmā’s slumber is over.

“This particular devastation actually took place not during the night of Lord Brahmā but during his day, for it was during the time of Cākṣuṣa Manu. Brahmā’s night takes place when Brahmā goes to sleep, but in the daytime there are fourteen Manus, one of whom is Cākṣuṣa Manu. Therefore, Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura comments that although it was daytime for Lord Brahmā, Brahmā felt sleepy for a short time by the supreme will of the Lord. This short period is regarded as Lord Brahmā’s night. This has been elaborately discussed by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta. The following is a summary of his analysis. Because Agastya Muni cursed Svāyambhuva Manu, during the time of Svāyambhuva Manu a devastation took place. This devastation is mentioned in the Matsya Purāṇa. During the time of Cākṣuṣa Manu, by the supreme will of the Lord, there was suddenly another pralaya, or devastation. This is mentioned by Mārkaṇḍeya Ṛṣi in the Viṣṇu-dharmottara. At the end of Manu’s time there is not necessarily a devastation, but at the end of the Cākṣuṣa-manvantara, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by His illusory energy, wanted to show Satyavrata the effects of devastation. Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī also agrees with this opinion”

According to Bhāgavata chronology, in this present White Varaha Kalpa there were two  devastations: the scheduled pralaya before the reign of the first Manu Svāyambhuva, and an unscheduled deluge during the sixth Manu, Cākṣuṣa. This may be the source of the Sumerian and Hebrew accounts of the ‘Great Deluge’, where a great worshiper chosen by the Lord saves all the animals, seeds and his family in an ark to restart human civilization.

Iconic seal impression of the Gread Flood – Sumer 3200 BCE

Mahayuga SandhyāsaThe End of Civilization (every 4,320,000 years) – at the end of every Kali yuga destruction is brought by the sword of the almighty Lord Kalki, who is called Jesus, Raudra-Kalkin, Kulgee or Pramiti in other religions.

Only the great sages who live through the Yugas will survive, and the Earth itself will become a wonderfully abundant paradise with forests and gardens of wish-fulfilling trees as a new Satya-yuga begins. The transition is not characterised by floods or fire, but a great battle by the Incarnation of Vishnu and His army, the ‘return of the Saviour’.


We live in Kali-yuga, in the 28th Mahayuga of the first day of the 51st year of Brahmā.

Currently, 50 years of Brahmā have elapsed. The last Kalpa at the end of 50th year is called Padma Kalpa. We are currently in the first ‘day’ of the 51st year. This Brahmā’s day or kalpa is named as Śveta-Varaha Kalpa. Within this Day, six Manvantaras have already elapsed and this is the seventh Manu period, named Vaivasvatha Manvantara. Within this Vaivasvatha Manvantara, 27 Mahayugas (4 Yugas together is a Mahayuga), and the Krita, Tretā and Dwapara Yugas of the 28th Mahayuga have elapsed. This Kaliyuga is in the 28th Mahayuga. This Kaliyuga began in the year 3102 BCE in the proleptic Julian Calendar. Since 50 years of Brahmā have already elapsed, this is the second Parardha, or Dvithiya Parardha, the second half of universal creation.

27 × 4320000 = 116,640,000 years elapsed in the first 27 Mahayugas of the current Manvantara

1.728 × 10^6 + 1.296 × 10^6 + 864000 = 3,888,000 years elapsed in current Mahayuga

3102 + 2019  =  5,121 years have elapsed of this current Kaliyuga (as of 2019).


Once in a day of Brahma, or every 1,000 Kali- yugas, there is a remarkable ‘Dhanya-Kali-Yuga’ or ‘most fortunate yuga’. It is the only Kali-yuga that contains a Golden Age within it. In this special yuga, the supremely compassionate Sri Caitanya Avatar appears, and teaches the secret path to the highest realm of Divine Pastimes and Divine Bliss to one and all. He sends all the sinful people, who should be rejected, to the Supreme Heaven.

It is because we are existing now in that Dhanya Kali Yuga [the 27th Kaliyuga of the 7th Manvantara of Brahmā’s day] that full knowledge of the Yuga Cycles, and the fullest knowledge of ascension, is presently available. The author is initiated into that sacred lineage of Masters coming from Sri Caitanya Avatar himself.

In the Dhanya-Kali, the Lord appears as the great master “Sri Caitanya” 

In this Dhanya-Kali, the Lord first came as the most compassionate teacher (Lord Buddha), then as the most compassionate saviour (Lord Yashas/Jesus), then He appeared Himself (secretly the God of Gods) as the most compassionate teacher and saviour, Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who began a Golden Age of Divine Love at the turn of the 15th century.

We are currently witnessing in the 21st Century two distinct currents of society, those pursuing an ecological and spiritual future disposed toward mantra meditation, and those bent on destroying the planet through fulfilling their materialistic and atheistic desires.

This dawning of spiritual love in a dark age, the effect of the sprouting ‘Gaura-Yuga’ or the ‘Dhanya-Kali Golden Age’, has been noticed and mislabelled the ‘Dawn of the Age of Aquarius’ by western society. This is merely an ‘astrological’ reference to the 2,000 year progression of the equinoxes through each sign of the zodiac, which was known by the Persians, Greeks and Mayans. It is a much smaller cycle than a yuga, and only takes around 24,000 years to complete. There are certain teachers in India who misinterpreted this 24,000 year cycle as being an ascending and descending double Mahayuga of 24,000 (Divine) years, thinking 4.32 million years an exaggeration or mistake.

It is stated in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, “strī-śūdra-dvija-bandhūnāṁ trayī na śruti-gocarā” in Kali-yuga it is impossible for ordinary people to perform highly technical Vedic sacrifices or the unbearable penances of the mystic yoga system. Therefore the simple process of glorifying the Personality of Godhead by chanting His holy names is essential in this age. “In the Age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the names of Kṛṣṇa. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Kṛṣṇa Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.” (Bhagavat Purāṇa 11.5.32)

Every 1,000 Mahayuga cycles, there is a very fortunate Kali Yuga, when the victims of Kali are blessed with a Golden Age of happiness and transcendental realization

There is very little Vedic literature about the Golden Age of Sri Caitanya. Bhaktivedanta Swami, in the line of Sri Caitanya-Avatar, claims this age of divine love will last 10,000 years from the year of appearance in 1486 CE. Other Gaudiya Masters declare the entire remainder of Kali-yuga will be like a Tretā-yuga paradise, where every village has a Temple of Sri Caitanya, accompanied with sacred singing and dancing in the streets. Only a small minority will choose to live like outcast savages.

One of the Upa-Puranas, the Kalki Purana, sheds some light on this particular Dhanya Kali yuga. Composed by Vyasadeva, he saw in trance how the avatar of Kalki would take birth and carry out his mission at the end of the yuga. At the introduction of the Purana (Ch 1 Text 38) the progress of the yuga is described:

dvitiye tannama hinas trtiye varna sankarah

ekavarnas caturthe ca vismrta cyuta satkriyah

“In the second quarter of Kali-yuga, people will no longer chant the holy names of Lord Krsna. In the third quarter of Kali-yuga, there will be an upsurge of unwanted population, and in the final quarter of Kali-yuga, there will be only one class of human being, because God consciousness will have been long forgotten.”

Here we see a reference to Lord Gaura’s ‘Age of Prema’. By the second quarter of Kaliyuga, Krishna’s names will not be chanted. That’s after 108,000 years of this Kali Age.

Does this pattern follow the same degredation algorithm of the 4 yugas? If it were, The Golden Age of Prema should have been at its height during the life of Lord Gaura, some 500 years ago. At that time all of India was wonderfully affected with Krishna-Prema, but by the time of Srila Bhaktivinoda, the expansion of Gaura-Bhakti had practically stopped. This was only 400 years later. We see from this, that the Age of Lord Gaura does not behave like the degradation of yugas.

We can imagine an alternative, like the passing of seasons. One quarter of Kali Yuga is 108,000 years. Thus, we can imagine, like the cycle of seasons, that the Golden Age will rise for 54,000 years, then decline for 54,000 years until the Chanting of Krishna’s names will cease. The peak, or ‘summertime’ of the Golden Age of Gaura could last for some thirty to fifty thousand years, with a total length, from the beginning with Lord Gaura to its end at a quarter way through Kali, a period of 103,500 years.

Thus, at the present time, this amazingly long period of both spiritual and technological advancement, has practically just begun. It will be like a blooming Treta-yuga of spiritual and material growth and happiness. Then, at it’s fullness, The New Golden Age of Prema, like a Satya Yuga within Kali, will last for 30 to 50 thousand years. During this time, everyone will be blissfully meditating on the Lord by singing and remembering the Hare Krishna Mahamantra. By virtue of the power of the mantra, there would be no old age or disease. Technology will have been transcended by mystic siddhi perfections. All necessities for life will be manifest by this chanting, and at the end of life, the people of this Golden Age would ascend to the highest eternal heaven of Goloka-Navadvipa in Vaikuntha.

However, being Kaliyuga, and although chanting will be in every town and village, there will always be a very small percentage of rebellious souls who will not be saved. Those who offend the ‘Chanters of the Great Holy Names’ will neither achieve happiness nor salvation. Like lepers or savages, they would live banished from society. Gradually, the Golden Age of Prema will diminish through 54,000 years, till the normal darkness of Kali once again envelopes humanity, until the end of the age when the Saviour returns.

The one in a thousand ‘Golden Age’ within Kali Yuga

Duration of the Golden Age within Kali Yuga “In the second quarter of Kali-yuga, people will no longer chant the holy names of Lord Krishna” (click to enlarge)

END PART 1 –  please continue with part 2:  The Four Yugas in Other Religions

or more about the Golden Age of Dhanya-Kali-Yuga

Copyright © 2017 Steve M. Doyle (Soolaba)

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